Вероятность наводнения

  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 917.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 917.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_sort::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_sort.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 587.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 587.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_node_status::operator_form() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::operator_form(&$form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/modules/node/views_handler_filter_node_status.inc on line 13.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_argument_validate::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_argument_validate.inc on line 87.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_argument_validate_taxonomy_term::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/modules/taxonomy/views_plugin_argument_validate_taxonomy_term.inc on line 165.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Only variables should be passed by reference in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/captcha/captcha.inc on line 61.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field::query() should be compatible with views_handler::query($group_by = false) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_field.inc on line 1147.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_field_comment_username::init() should be compatible with views_handler::init(&$view, $options) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/modules/comment/views_handler_field_comment_username.inc on line 47.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_query::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_query.inc on line 169.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 136.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc on line 24.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/views.module on line 1113.
  • strict warning: Declaration of page_title_plugin_display_page_with_page_title::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/page_title/views/plugins/page_title_plugin_display_page_with_page_title.inc on line 66.
  • strict warning: Declaration of content_handler_field::element_type() should be compatible with views_handler_field::element_type($none_supported = false, $default_empty = false, $inline = false) in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/cck/includes/views/handlers/content_handler_field.inc on line 229.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_term_node_tid_depth::operator_options() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::operator_options() in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/modules/taxonomy/views_handler_filter_term_node_tid_depth.inc on line 89.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Non-static method views_many_to_one_helper::option_definition() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_many_to_one.inc on line 23.
  • strict warning: Only variables should be passed by reference in /var/www/www-root/data/www/house18.info/sites/default/modules/captcha/captcha.inc on line 61.

Этот пример иллюстрирует опасность допущения, что правило всегда справедливо. Для небольших совокупностей правило является слишком строгим, т. е. оно предсказывает гораздо большие значения, чем встречающиеся в действительности. Для больших совокупностей, как например, эта, правило ведет к опасной недооценке нагрузок.

Области применения теории экстремальных значений. Применение теории экстремальных значений ко многим природным и искусственным явлениям широко освещено в литературе. Например, найдено, что порывы ветра, встречаемые самолетом в полете, подчиняются этому закону. Это подтверждается скоростью ветра и измеренным ускорением самолета. Подобные же соотношения были найдены для землетрясений, погоды и прочности материалов.

Вычисление долговечности при изменяющихся нагрузках. Как и в случае объекта, подверженного воздействию постоянной нагрузки, долговечность объекта, находящегося под воздействием переменной нагрузки, можно найти, определив период времени, в течение которого прочность объекта будет превышать нагрузку. В случае, если нагрузка изменяется циклически и период ее изменения значительно меньше, чем долговечность объекта, то значение нагрузки можно с небольшой погрешностью заменить ее пиковым значением при условии, если время долговечности велико по сравнению с числом циклов. В более общем случае, когда нагрузка изменяется со значительным преобладанием или совсем нерегулярно, величину максимальной нагрузки следует определять статистическим способом. Безусловно, в этом случае можно говорить лишь о вероятной долговечности. Вероятную долговечность можно легко вычислить, если на одном графике построить зависимость наибольшей вероятной нагрузки и прочности и определить время, когда нагрузка впервые превысит прочность. Здесь следует различать два случая.

02.11.2016